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英语阅读,比尔盖茨的捐款

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微软联合创始人慈善家比尔盖茨星期四宣布拨款1亿2000万美元,帮助非洲和印度的小农通过可持续农业改善他们的生活。



世界粮食日前夕宣布的赠款来自比尔和梅林达盖茨基金会,这是由Gates和他的妻子共同主持的慈善组织。



Gates在爱荷华世界粮食奖研讨会上发表讲话时说:“世界上三的贫困人口通过耕种小块土地获得粮食和收入,”他在九多个项目中宣布,其中大部分是在非洲。



“因此,如果我们能够使小农养殖更具生产力和更有利可图,我们就可以对饥饿、营养和贫穷产生巨大影响。”



Gates还赞扬了已故的诺曼·博洛格,他是一位获得诺贝尔奖的科学家,他经常被称为“绿色革命之父”,他被誉为通过培育抗病小麦拯救了数亿人的生命。



“绿色革命”是二十世纪取得的巨大成就之一,但它远远不够。”Gates说。



“它没有去非洲,”Gates在星期四宣布的大部分赠款资金将流向那里。



按照盖茨基金会促进发展的方针,Gates称之为“通过价值链投资于小农户及其社区的方式”,这些赠款将有助于“把已经在世界其他地方改变农业的技术”带到非洲和印度。



资金将用于促进有利于环境的作物的发展,如豆类,这是一种天然肥料或改善健康状况,例如一种富含维生素A的甘薯新品种,这种维生素在发展中国家儿童的饮食中常常缺失。



Gates说,考虑到气候变化可能造成的破坏,作物也将得到开发。



他引用了加利福尼亚斯坦福大学的研究人员进行的一项研究,结果表明,如果非洲南部的农民种植同样种类的玉米,这是许多非洲人的主食,到了今天,2030,“气候变化带来的严酷条件将使生产力下降25%以上。”。



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Gates说:“在一个有数百万穷人的地区,人口增长率下降意味着饥饿。”。



“我们必须开发能够在干旱中生长的作物;能够在洪水中生存;能够抵御病虫害。”。



“在恶劣的气候下,我们需要在同一块土地上获得更高的产量。Gates说:“如果没有一个持续不断的、以科学为基础的研究来提高生产力——尤其是在发展中国家的小农场,我们将永远无法得到它。”。



补助资金将项目打造“社区知识工作者网络连接与“村民通过乌干达手机信息来源的基金,其中移动电话普及率在80-90%。



赠款被指定用于创建“农民语音电台”,该广播节目将向非洲农民宣传可持续农业,其中70至80%使用无线电作为信息来源。



然而,更多的赠款资金将有助于建立自己的专业知识网络,使非洲人在制定农业政策决策时获得更大的自主权。



在印度,盖茨基金会的资金将用于帮助妇女团体改善其土地和水管理技能,从而提高他们的生活水平。



Gates说,创造包括非洲在内的新的绿色革命的动力必须是全球性的努力。



他赞扬了贝拉克·奥巴马总统,他在就职时说,美国将与发展中国家一起“使你们的农场繁荣”,并赞扬G20的三年220亿美元的承诺,帮助最贫穷的农民提高生产力。



但他也呼吁企业界、研究机构、大学、联合国、世界银行、科学家、农民团体加快步伐,帮助非洲和其他发展中地区把更多更好的食品放在人民的碗中,并在不损害环境的情况下做到这一点。



Gates说:“没有理由让这么多农民如此饥饿和贫穷。”。



“如果农民能得到他们需要的东西来养活他们的家庭并卖掉他们的剩余物,那么世界上有数亿人吗?”最贫穷的人可以过上更好的生活。”



Microsoft co-founder turned philanthropist Bill Gates on Thursday announced 120 million dollars in grants to help small-scale farmers in Africa and India improve their lives through sustainable agriculture.

The grants, announced on the eve of World Food Day, are from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the philanthropic organization co-chaired by Gates and his wife.

"Three-quarters of the world's poorest people get their food and income by farming small plots of land," Gates said as he announced grants to nine projects, mostly in Africa, during a speech to the World Food Prize Symposium in Iowa.

"So if we can make small-holder farming more productive and more profitable, we can have a massive impact on hunger and nutrition and poverty."

Gates also paid tribute to the late Norman Borlaug, a Nobel Prize-winning scientist who is often called the father of the Green Revolution and who has been credited with saving hundreds of millions of lives by developing disease-resistant wheat.

The Green Revolution "was one of the great achievements of the 20th century, but it didn't go far enough," said Gates.

"It didn't go to Africa," where the bulk of the grant money announced by Gates on Thursday will go.

In keeping with the Gates Foundation's approach to promoting development, which Gates described as "investing across the value chain in ways that will benefit small farmers and their communities," the grants will help "bring the technology that has transformed farming in other parts of the world" to Africa and India.

Funds will be used to promote the development of crops which can help the environment -- such as legumes, which are a natural fertilizer -- or improve health, such as a new variety of sweet potato enriched in Vitamin A, which is often missing from the diets of children in the developing world.

Crops will also be developed with the possible ravages of climate change in mind, said Gates.

He cited a study conducted by researchers at Stanford University in California which showed that if farmers in southern Africa are planting the same variety of maize, the staple food of many Africans, in 2030 as today, "the harsher conditions from climate change will reduce productivity by more than 25 percent.

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"Declining yields at a time of rising population in a region with millions of poor people means starvation," said Gates.

"We have to develop crops that can grow in a drought; that can survive in a flood; that can resist pests and disease.

"We need higher yields on the same land in harsher weather. And we will never get it without a continuous and urgent science-based search to increase productivity -- especially on small farms in the developing world," said Gates.

Grant money will fund a project to create "community knowledge worker networks" connecting villagers with sources of information via mobile phones in Uganda, where mobile phone penetration is around 80-90 percent.

Grants have been earmarked to create "Farmer Voice Radio," which would broadcast programs promoting sustainable agriculture to African farmers, 70 to 80 percent of whom use radio as a source of information.

And yet more grant money will help to build networks of home-grown expertise that will give Africans greater autonomy when making agricultural policy decisions.

In India, funding from the Gates Foundation will be used to help women's groups improve their land and water management skills, which would in turn enhance their standard of living.

The drive to create a new green revolution that includes Africa must be a global effort, said Gates.

He praised President Barack Obama, who said when he took office that the United States will work alongside developing nations "to make your farms flourish", and hailed the G20's three-year, 22 billion dollar pledge to help the poorest farmers increase productivity.

But he called, too, on the corporate world, research institutions, universities, the United Nations, the World Bank, scientists, farmers groups to step up to the plate and help Africa and other developing regions put more and better food in the bowls of their people, and do it without damaging the environment.

"There is no reason for so many farmers to be so hungry and so poor," Gates said.

"If farmers can get what they need to feed their families and sell their surplus, hundreds of millions of the world?s poorest people can build themselves a better life."
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