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it 与there be的用法

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I.要点 

1、it的用法 

(1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到的无生命的事物,动植物、婴儿及指示代词this, that,如, 

I have a new pen. It is beautiful. 

The Browns have a new baby. It's cute. 

(2)用来表示时间、天气、距离等,如,It's twelve o'clock now. 

It's fine today. 

(3)用作引导词,代替由不定式,ing形式或从句表示的真正的主语或宾语,如, 

It's no good telling him that. 

It's necessary for you to do so. 

(4)用在强调结构中,构成强调句式:It is/was +被强调部分+that/who/whom +句子其余部分,可强调除谓语以外的句子其他成分,如, 

It was this morning that I saw him in the street. 

It was I who saw him in the street this morning. 

It was in the street that I saw him this morning. 

It was him whom I saw in the street this morning. 

2、there be句型 

英语表示某时某处或某物时,常用there be句型,这是一种倒装结构,如, 

There are a lot of students playing on the ground. 

There is going to be a test this afternoon. 

当主语有两个或两个以上时,动词be常和最近的那个主语取得一致,如, 

There is a pen and three pencils in the pencil-box. 

There isn't a desk, a bench and three chairs in the room. 

There are lots of people like it, aren't there? 

there be句型,谓语动词除be之外,还可用其他表示存在,位置移动等意义的不及物动词或词组,如exist, stand, lie, enter, come, happen to be, appear to be等,如, 

There stands a house at the foot of the hill. 

there be句型表示"存在"而have表"有"、"拥有",所以there be中 be不能换成have,但当have表示事物的特征时,可用"主语+have"结构替换there be 句型,如: 

There are five doors in the house. 

The house has five doors. 

    there be 的其它句型: 

1、There must be a meeting in the office. 

2、There have been great changes since 1979. 

3、There being no bus, we had to walk home. 

I. 例题 

例1 ____ that he went to sleep. 

A It was until midnight           B That was until midnight 

C It was not until midnight   D That was not until midnight 

解析:该题答案为C。强调until结构时,要将否定词not移到until前。又如:He didn't leave until twelve 改为It was not until twelve that he left. 

例2 There are a lot of students ____ in the class room. 

A talk   B talking   C talked   D to talk 

解析:该题正确答案为B。 There be句型为倒装句,可换为A lot of students are talking in the class room. 又如:There is a lot of noise heard out in the street.
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