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英语语法的几个禁止要点

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英语语法的几个禁止要点

1. You can’t end a sentence with a preposition

1. 不能以介词结尾
普通状况因该防止以介词结尾。但以下四种状况用介词结尾却更自然。

passive structures:

被动构造:

 (she enjoys being fussed over.)

 (她喜欢被蜂拥的觉得。)

relative clauses:

条件从句:

 (They must be convinced of the commitment that they are taking on.)

 (你必需置信他们的承诺。)

infinitive structures:

不定式构造:

 (Tom had no-one to play with.)

 (没有人能够和汤姆一同玩。)

questions beginning with who, where, what, etc.:

Who、where、what打头的问句:

(what music are you interested in?)

(你喜欢什么样的音乐?)

2. You can’t start a sentence with a conjunction

2. 不能以连词开头

Conjunctions are words such as and, but, so, and if, which are used to connect clauses, sentences, or words. This grammatical superstition arises from the thought that because these words are used to connect separate clauses.The argument against using and or but to introduce a sentence is that such a sentence expresses an incomplete thought (or ‘fragment’) and is therefore incorrect. However, this is a stylistic preference rather than a grammatical rule.

连词包括and、but、so、if等词语,用于衔接从句、句子或单词。有一种说法以为这些词是用来衔接单独的从句,他们倡议运用时的片段呈现在一个句子的开端。他们以为运用and或者but来引出句子这个句子的含义是不完好的,因而是不正确的。但是,这是一个作风的偏好,而不是语法规则。

3. Double negatives are always ungrammatical

3. 双重否认不契合语法规则

When two negatives are used to communicate a negative, then the usage is ungrammatical. The reason for this is that two negatives actually cancel each other out and create an affirmative statement. For example, the sentence ‘I don’t have nothing for you’is ungrammatical because the presence of two negatives technically switches the meaning to an affirmative one, so that it means ‘I have something for you.’

当两个否认词汇一同运用时,在语法上是不能表达否认的。缘由是两个否认实践上相互抵消,表达肯定的含义。例如,这句话“I don’t have nothing for you”不契合语法,由于两个否认词汇表达肯定的含义,这意味着“我有东西给你。”

Even though the use of double negatives in formal speech and writing is nonstandard, the use of double negatives is common in areas such as informal speech and popular music.

即便在正式演讲和写作中运用双重否认是不规范的,在非正式的演讲和盛行音乐等范畴双重否认的运用是很常见的。

However, there is one use of double negatives that is entirely grammatical. In this use, the double negative is used to express and reinforce an affirmative.

但是,有一个双重否认的运用是完整契合语法的。在运用双重否认表达肯定时。

I couldn’t not help him. [meaning: I strongly felt I should help him]

我会协助他。

4. Splitting infinitives is a mistake

4.  不定式不能分隔运用

For the uninitiated, splitting infinitives is the practice of placing an adverb between ‘to’and the corresponding verb, as in ‘to lightly tap.’Splitting infinitives is a common peeve of grammar enthusiasts, but like many such peeves it has been employed by well-regarded English prose stylists for centuries. However, take care before splitting those infinitives; many style guides and professors would still consider this a stylistic error.

在普通人眼中,团结不定式是在不定式和动词之间放置一个副词,如“to lightly tap轻拍”。团结不定式是常见的令语法喜好者苦恼的问题。但是有很多著名的英文散文家喜欢运用团结不定式的写作方式。但是,应当当心运用团结不定式,依然有很多专家以为这是文体错误。
例如:

She used to secretly admire him.

她曾经偷偷观赏他。

You have to really watch him.

你必需真的看着他。

Those who believe that split infinitives are grammatically incorrect would rewrite these sentences as:

以为团结不定式不契合语法标准的人会主张这样改写上面的句子:

She used secretly to admire him.

她曾经偷偷观赏他。

You really have to watch him.

你必需真的看着他。

5. You can’t start a sentence with hopefully  hopefully

5. 不能作为句子开头

This use of hopefully to mean ‘it is hoped’rather than the adverbial ‘in a hopeful manner’has been disputed in the past several years, though it has found its way into general acceptance.

hopefully这个词的意义是“有希望地”,而不是状语“以一种充溢希望的方式”。在过去的几年里,这种用法固然曾经被普遍承受但不断有争议的。

Hopefully and thankfully can’t be reworded along the lines of other sentence adverbs, using the constructions ‘it is hopeful that’or ‘it is thankful that’:

Hopefully 和thankfully和其他句子副词不同,能够运用‘it is hopeful that’ 或者‘it is thankful that’的构造

Hopefully, planning delays will be minimal.

希望竞赛尽可能不被推延。

It is hopeful that planning delays will be minimal.

希望竞赛尽可能不被推延。
也能够这样改写:

It is to be hoped that planning delays will be minimal.

希望竞赛尽可能不被推延。


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