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公共英语三级作文:Lighthouses

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新大陆的第一批航标灯可能是挂在港口入口处的灯笼。第一座灯塔是马萨诸塞湾殖民地于1716年在波士顿港入口处的小布鲁斯特岛上建造的。最初的灯塔在1776年被炸毁,它是靠向船只征收“灯光费”来支付和维护的。那时在殖民地只有十几个真正的灯塔。一个多世纪后,这里有700座灯塔。


19世纪50年代,第一个灯塔在西海岸竖立,其特点与新英格兰的基本设计相同:科德角住宅,塔楼从中心升起或靠近。然而,在新英格兰和其他地方,灯塔反映了各种各样的建筑风格。由于东北部的大多数车站都建在岩石嶙峋的山峰上,高大的塔就不受欢迎了。有些是石头和砖做的,有些是木头或金属做的。有的站在桩子或高跷上;有的用铁棒固定在岩石上。再往南,从马里兰到佛罗里达群岛,海岸地势低,多沙。人们经常需要在那里建造高大的塔楼——巨大的建筑物,如1870年点亮的北卡罗来纳哈特拉斯角宏伟的灯塔。高达190英尺,是美国最高的砖砌灯塔。


尽管外观和结构的差异,大多数美国灯塔共享几个特点:光,生活区,有时一个钟(或之后,雾角)。他们还有一些其他的共同点:一个饲养员,通常是饲养员的家人。看守人的主要任务是修剪灯芯,以保持火焰的稳定和明亮。最早的保管员来自各行各业——他们是海员、农民、机械师、粗工——而任命通常由当地海关官员作为政治上的利器下达。1852年,财政部下属的美国灯塔管理局接管了灯塔的管理工作,此后,守塔人军团逐渐变得高度专业化。

The first navigational lights in the New World were probably lanterns hung at harbor entrances. The first lighthouse was put up by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1716 on Little Brewster Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor. Paid for and maintained by "light dues" levied on ships, the original beacon was blown up in 1776. By then there were only a dozen or so true lighthouses in the colonies. Little over a century later, there were 700 lighthouses.
 
  The first light erected on the West Coast in the 1850's featured the same basic New England design: a Cape Cod dwelling with the tower rising from the center or standing close by. In New England and elsewhere, though, lighthouses reflected a variety of architectural styles. Since most stations in the Northeast were built on rocky eminences, enormous towers were not the rule. Some were made of stone and brick, others of wood or metal. Some stood on pilings or stilts; some were fastened to rock with iron rods. Farther south, from Maryland through the Florida Keys, the coast was low and sandy. It was often necessary to build tall towers there - massive structures like the majestic Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, lighthouse, which was lit in 1870. At190 feet, it is the tallest brick lighthouse in the country.
 
  Notwithstanding differences in appearance and construction, most American lighthouses shared several features: a light, living quarters and sometimes a bell (or later, a foghorn).They also had something else in common: a keeper and, usually, the keeper's family. The keeper's essential task was trimming the lantern wick in order to maintain a steady, bright flame. The earliest keepers came from every walk of life - they were seamen, farmers, mechanics, rough mill hands - and appointments were often handed out by local customs commissioners as political plums. After the administration of lighthouses was taken over in 1852 by the United States Lighthouse Board, an agency of the Treasury Department, the keeper corps gradually became highly professional.



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