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公共三级英语作文:氢与工业

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氢是最轻、最简单的元素,它的一些特性使它在许多工业中具有价值。它每单位重量释放的热量比任何其他燃料都多。在火箭发动机中,大量的氢和氧被燃烧,氢和氧被用于焊接火炬,产生高达华氏4000度的高温,可以用来切割钢铁。用来发电的燃料电池靠氢和氧工作。


氢还可以通过除去金属中的氧来防止金属在热处理过程中生锈。虽然单独除去氧气是困难的,但是氢和氧很容易结合形成水,水可以加热蒸发,然后很容易除去。氢在食品工业中对于氢化过程也很有用。人造黄油和食用油等产品通过在分子中加入氢,从液体变成半固态。肥皂制造商也为此目的使用氢。


氢也是最冷的制冷剂之一。纯氢气被用于大型发电机冷却线圈。此外,在化学工业中,氢被用来生产氨、汽油、甲醇等许多重要产品。


 Hydrogen, the lightest and simplest of the elements, has several properties that make it valuable for many industries. It releases more heat per unit of weight than any other fuel. In rocket engines, tons of hydrogen and oxygen are burned, and hydrogen is used with oxygen for welding torches that produce temperatures as high as 4, 000 degrees F and can be used in cutting steel. Fuel cells to generate electricity operate on hydrogen and oxygen.
 
  Hydrogen also serves to prevent metals from tarnishing during heat treatments by removing the oxygen from them. Although it would be difficult to remove the oxygen by itself, hydrogen readily combines with oxygen to form water, which can be heated to steam and easily removed. Hydrogen is also useful in the food industry for a process know as hydrogenation. Products such as margarine and cooking oils are changed from liquids to semisolids by adding hydrogento their molecules. Soap manufacturers also use hydrogen for this purpose.
 
  Hydrogen is also one of the coolest refrigerants. It does not become a liquid until it reaches temperatures of -425 degrees F. Pure hydrogen gas is used in large electric generators to cool the coils. In addition, in the chemical industry, hydrogen is used to produce ammonia, gasoline, methyl alcohol, and many other important products.
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