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英语文章快速阅读练习一

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为什么归纳和数学科学,在第一次快速发展希腊文明达到顶点时,先进的如此缓慢,二千年了,为什么在后来的二百年自然科学和数学知识的积累,并因此超越前人,这些科学可以视为我们时代的产品有问题,有兴趣的现代哲学家不小于物体与这些科学很熟悉。是不是采用了一种新的研究方法,或者是在使用旧方法的更大的美德中,这种奇异的现代现象起源于它?是长期的一个被抓的发展,是现代的一个正常成长吗?或者我们应该把两个阶段的特点所谓的历史事件的联系的情况下,没有任何的解释是可能的,除了在上帝的全能和智慧的引导?
 
这个解释已经司空见惯,用演绎法主要是在科学探索古人,而现在应用了归纳法,证明是过于狭窄,未经仔细审核点足够清晰的对比,是古代和现代的科学理论和调查之间有明显的。因为一切知识都基于观察,通过分析从这出发,通过综合分析,归纳演绎推理,如果可能的话,通过验证,或通过新的诉求观察,确实是一个方法步骤的指导下,相关部分扣除;与古代科学提供这些方法的每一个的例子,或部分的一种方法,已从科学的例子,广义。
 
未能采用这些方法充分部分的任何一个,在艺术和观察和实验资源的一个缺陷,不小心观察,忽略相关事实,诉诸观察和实验这些都会失败的故障确认真相,无论在古代还是现代;但这声明并没有解释为什么现代科学具有较高的功效,通过什么手段,他达到了他的优势。更不用说它解释了近代科学的突然增长。
 
Why the inductive and mathematical sciences, after their first rapid development at the culmination of Greek civilization, advanced so slowly for two thousand years—and why in the following two hundred years a knowledge of natural and mathematical science has accumulated, which so vastly exceeds all that was previously known that these sciences may be justly regarded as the products of our own times—are questions which have interested the modern philosopher not less than the objects with which these sciences are more immediately conversant. Was it the employment of a new method of research, or in the exercise of greater virtue in the use of the old methods, that this singular modern phenomenon had its origin? Was the long period one of arrested development, and is the modern era one of normal growth? Or should we ascribe the characteristics of both periods to so-called historical accidents—to the influence of conjunctions in circumstances of which no explanation is possible, save in the omnipotence and wisdom of a guiding Providence?

The explanation which has become commonplace, that the ancients employed deduction chiefly in their scientific inquiries, while the moderns employ induction, proves to be too narrow, and fails upon close examination to point with sufficient distinctness the contrast that is evident between ancient and modern scientific doctrines and inquiries. For all knowledge is founded on observation, and proceeds from this by analysis, by synthesis and analysis, by induction and deduction, and if possible by verification, or by new appeals to observation under the guidance of deduction—by steps which are indeed correlative parts of one method; and the ancient sciences afford examples of every one of these methods, or parts of one method, which have been generalized from the examples of science.

A failure to employ or to employ adequately any one of these partial methods, an imperfection in the arts and resources of observation and experiment, carelessness in observation, neglect of relevant facts, by appeal to experiment and observation—these are the faults which cause all failures to ascertain truth, whether among the ancients or the moderns; but this statement does not explain why the modern is possessed of a greater virtue, and by what means he attained his superiority. Much less does it explain the sudden growth of science in recent times.
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