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巧记宾语从句的顺口溜

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巧记宾语从句顺口溜 

        [宾语从句歌诀]

  宾语从句三姊妹,that,if/whether,wh-/how展风采。

  展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。

  主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。

  陈述请你选that,疑问需用if/whether连。

  特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。

  三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。

  留意变脸的if/when,从句的简化记心间。

[歌诀解码]

  一、三姊妹

  宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:

  1. 由that引导的宾语从句。如:

  we knew (that)we should learn from each other.

2. 由if/whether引导的宾语从句。如:

  please tell me if/whether you have been to america.

  3. 由who,where,how等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如:

  can you tell me how i can get to the nearest post office?

  二、三关

  1. 引导词关

  如果从句是陈述句,引导词用that(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。

  2. 语序关

  ①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:

  he is an honest boy. the teacher said. →the teacher said(that)he was an honest boy.

  ②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:

does he work hard?i wonder.→i wonder if/whether he works hard.

  when did he leave?i don’t know. →i don’t know when he left.

  3. 时态关

  ①如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:

  i have heard(that)he will come back next week.

  ②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如:

  he said(that)there were no classes yesterday.

  注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:

  he said that light travels much faster than sound.

三、人称的变化和标点的使用

  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:

“may i use your knife?”he asked me. →he asked me if he might use my knife.

  “do you know her telephone number?”he asked me. →he asked me if i know her telephone number.

  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:

  who will give us a talk?i don’t know. →i don’t know who will give us a talk.

  do you know?where does he live?→do you know where he lives?

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