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英语经典美文之飞跃的思维

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你有一个问题,你一直在想,直到你累了,忘了它,也许睡在上面,然后闪光!当你没有仔细考虑它时,答案就出现了,这是上帝给你的礼物。
 
当然,所有的想法都不是这样的,但有趣的是很多人都是这样做的,尤其是最重要的。他们迸发出精神,迸发出创作的热情。他们怎么做这件事是个谜。心理学还不了解意识思维的一般过程,但“思想飞跃”产生的新思想特别耐人寻味,因为它们一定来自某个地方。现在,让我们假设他们来自“无意识”。这是合理的,因为心理学家用这个术语来描述这个主体未知的心理过程,而创造性思维正是在未知的事物中形成的。
 
似乎所有真正的创造性活动在某种程度上都依赖于来自无意识的信号,而人的直觉越敏锐,信号就越尖锐,越生动。
 
但是生长需要一粒种子,而创造过程的核心就在于产生能从中生长的原始肥沃的细胞核。在所有创造这个初始步骤包括从不同的元素的新的统一的建立,无序变为有序,从混沌的形状。心灵通过塑性成形达到这个目的,从而形成一个新的单元,从经验中提取并储存在记忆中的分离元素中。直觉源于丰富的统一经验。
 
这种新形式的形成过程,必须发生在大脑的神经活动模式中,处于意识阈之下,相互作用、结合,形成更全面的模式。实验生理学还没有确定这一过程,因为它的方法还不够完善,但重要的是,睡眠中能量消耗的四分之一到大脑,即使感觉器官处于休息状态,以维持一千万脑细胞的活动。这些细胞作为一个器官共同行动,创造出产生新思维模式的奇迹。没有一台计算机器能做到这一点,因为这样的机器只能“做我们知道如何设计它们”,而这些形成的大脑过程遵循未知的法则。
 
天才的经验能得出什么实际结论吗?普通人有思想的艺术吗?当然,没有一条通往成功的道路;在想象的世界里,每个人都必须找到自己的方式来利用自己的天赋。



You've had a problem, you've thought about it till you were tired, forgotten it and perhaps slept on it, and then flash! When you weren't thinking about it suddenly the answer has come to you, as a gift from the gods.

Of course all ideas don't come like that, but the interesting thing is that so many do, particularly the most important ones. They burst into the mind, glowing with the heat of creation. How they do it is a mystery. Psychology does not yet understand even the ordinary processes of conscious thought, but the emergence of new ideas by a "leap in thought" is particularly intriguing, because they must have come from somewhere. For the moment let us assume that they come from the "unconscious". This is reasonable, for the psychologists use this term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the subject, and creative thought consists precisely in what was unknown becoming known.

It seems that all truly creative activity depends in some degree on these signals from the unconscious, and the more highly intuitive the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.

But growth requires a seed, and the heart of the creative process lies in the production of the original fertile nucleus from which growth can proceed. This initial step in all creation consists in the establishment of a new unity from disparate elements, of order out of disorder, of shape from what was formless. The mind achieves this by the plastic reshaping, so as to form a new unit, of a selection of the separate elements derived from experience and stored in memory. Intuitions arise from richly unified experience.

This process of the establishment of new form must occur in pattern of nervous activity in the brain, lying below the threshold of consciousness, which interact and combine to form more comprehensive patterns. Experimental physiology has not yet identified this process, for its methods are as yet insufficiently refined, but it may be significant that a quarter of the total bodily consumption of energy during sleep goes to the brain, even when the sense organs are at rest, to maintain the activity of ten million brain cells. These cells, acting together as a single organ, achieve the miracle of the production of new patterns of thought. No calculating machine can do that, for such machines can "only do what we know how to design them to do", and these formative brain processes obey laws which are still unknown.

Can any practical conclusions be drawn from the experience of genius? Is there an art of thought for the ordinary person? Certainly there is no single road to success; in the world of the imagination each has to find his own way to use his own gift.


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