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如何让自己的抵抗疾病-英语科普

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年龄是影响感冒易感性的一个关键因素。一根大学公共卫生学院的一项研究揭示了一些似乎适用于一般人群的细节。婴儿是最容易感冒的人群,在他们出生的第一年平均感冒6次以上。在三岁之前,男孩比女孩更容易感冒。三岁以后,女孩比男孩更容易感冒,十几岁的女孩平均每年感冒三次,男孩每年感冒两次。一般来说,感冒的发病率会随着年龄的增长而下降。身体健康的老年人每年只感冒一到两次。有一个例外是在20多岁的人群中发现的,尤其是女性,她们的感冒感染呈上升趋势,因为这个年龄段的人最有可能有年幼的孩子。那些把生育推迟到三四十岁的成年人也会经历同样的感冒感染的突然增加。研究还发现,经济也扮演着重要角色。随着收入的增加,家庭成员患感冒的频率会降低。收入最低的家庭患感冒的几率比收入较高的家庭高出约三分之一。较低的收入通常迫使人们生活在比富人通常居住的地方更拥挤的地方,而拥挤增加了感冒病毒在人与人之间传播的机会。低收入也可能对饮食产生不利影响。营养不良对感冒易感性的影响程度尚不清楚,但一般认为不适当的饮食会降低抵抗力。

A critical factor that plays a part in susceptibility to colds is age. A study done by the University of ichigan School of Public Health revealed particulars that seem to hold true for the general population. Infants are the most cold ridden group, averaging more than six colds in their first years. Boys have more colds than girls up to age three. After the age of three, girls are more susceptible than boys, and teenage girls average three colds a year to boys’ two. The general incidence of colds continues to decline into maturity. Elderly people who are in good health have as few as one or two colds annually. One exception is found among people in their twenties, especially women, who show a rise in cold infections, because people in this age group are most likely to have young children. Adults who delay having children until their thirties and forties experience the same sudden increase in cold infections. The study also found that economics plays an important role. As income increases, the frequency at which colds are reported in the family decreases. Families with the lowest income suffer about a third more colds than families at the upper end. Lower income generally forces people to live in more cramped quarters than those typically occupied by wealthier people, and crowding increases the opportunities for the cold virus to travel from person to person. Low income may also adversely influence diet. The degree to which poor nutrition affects susceptibility to colds is not yet clearly established, but an inadequate diet is suspected of lowering resistance generally.
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