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双语阅读:公立与私立大学学费

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公立与私立大学学费

19岁的北京男学生张云奕(音译)和1998年出生的美国青年康纳·柯伦(音译)都在试图为他们最喜欢的娱乐活动省钱,但方式完全不同。为了省下每个月的零花钱,张梦想着买一个新的相机镜头,这可能要花费2万元(2875美元)。然而,柯伦正在做兼职工作来支付他的汽车费用。他发现关于汽车的一切都很有趣,包括公路旅行。
 
 
看看世界上任何一个社交媒体平台,你会发现数以百万计的年轻人像张和柯伦一样抱怨他们这代人的经济压力。尽管父母给了他们经济上的支持,但如今许多年轻人发现自己被高昂的学费、昂贵的房租以及其他用于娱乐和爱好的高昂费用所困扰。
 
 
“Z世代”指的是90年代中期至21世纪头十年中期出生的人,他们有望不仅成为全球最大的消费群体,也将成为我们各自经济的支柱。因此,了解Z一代是如何挣钱和花钱的是很重要的。《大都会》杂志最近采访了一些北京和纽约的年轻人,他们自称是Z世代,希望能对这个问题有所了解。
 
 
尽管父母为学费、房租和其他日常开支提供经济支持,一些人还是试图通过兼职工作赚钱。在互联网驱动的环境和更加包容的世界的影响下,中美这一代年轻人也有一些消费行为模式和观点。
 
 
对于2000年后在美国和中国出生的Z一代年轻人来说,学费和房租自然是他们日常开支中最大的一部分。20岁的Conall Curran就读于密歇根一所私立学校,她说:“我很幸运,我的父母有资源,愿意像他们一样支持我。”
 
 
他每年的总学费约为6万美元,不过学业奖学金意味着他的父母只需支付一半的学费。他说:“就密歇根州而言,学费非常昂贵,但学校会根据家庭收入和你应得的奖学金给学生一些折扣。”
 
 
得到家长和政府的支持
 
 
根据《美国新闻》(US News)的数据,在2008 -2019学年,私立大学的平均学费为3.5676万美元,公立大学的公立大学学费为9716美元。自上世纪90年代末以来,公立大学的入学人数激增。美国高等教育的成本如此之高,以至于越来越多的年轻人选择在成本较低的院校留学——或者干脆干脆不上大学。
 
 
据《福布斯》(Forbes)的数据,到2018年,美国人背负的学生贷款比以往任何时候都多,有4400万借款人欠下了1.5万亿美元的学生贷款。与此同时,这个问题在中国并不存在。中国的学生贷款不像美国那么普遍。
 
 
最近刚满18岁的胡玉晨(音译)是北京外国语大学职业学院的一名学生。胡舒立每年的学费只有1800元(259美元)。“职业教育是由政府支持的,”胡向大都会解释说。根据新浪网公布的数据,一般来说,中国高等院校的学生平均每年的学费约为5000元(719美元)。
 
 
许多美国年轻人没有时间或精力去找一份兼职工作,尽管这样做有经济激励。22岁的Z一代学生凯文·布鲁姆(Kevin Brew)在纽约上大学时试图将学习与兼职工作结合起来。高中时,他在家乡罗德岛做了第一份救生员的工作。
 
 
柯伦指出,虽然Z一代的学生早在高中就可以找到一份兼职工作,但他也承认,要让他们独立于父母是远远不够的。
 
 
张运毅(音译)的学费为每年6000元(863美元),据他说,许多像他这样年纪的中国学生更喜欢把精力放在学习上,而不是工作上。“我选择不工作是因为我不想工作,”胡说。“现在正是我通过阅读和学习尽可能多地吸收知识的时候。”
 
 
但张磊明年将寻求实习机会,尽管他的主要动机是在自己选择的领域积累工作经验,而不仅仅是挣钱。“我不认为(工作)意味着美国年轻人比中国人更独立,”张说。
 
 
 
 
今天的Z一代更多的是被技术而不是社会阶层所塑造。照片:向量
 
 
 
超过了千禧一代
 
 
浙江大学创业实验室2016年发布的一份调查报告显示,在当地1万名大学生中,有21%在上学期间做过兼职。但由于中国的学费远低于美国,无论是胡还是张的家庭都没有为他们的教育背负太多债务


Zhang Yunyi, a 19-year-old male student in Beijing, and Conall Curran, a young American man born in 1998, are both trying to save money for their favorite pastimes, but in two totally different ways. Saving part of his pocket money every month, Zhang dreams of buying a new camera lens, which may cost about 20,000 yuan ($2,875). Curran, however, is working extra part-time jobs to cover his car expenses. He finds everything about cars interesting, including road trips. 
 
Take a look at any social media platform in the world and you'll find millions of young people like Zhang and Curran complaining about their generation's financial pressures. Despite financial support from parents, many youth today find themselves troubled by steep tuition fees, expensive rent and other high expenses for entertainment and hobbies.
 
Generation Z - a term referring to those born between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s - are on track to becoming not only the largest group of consumers, but also the backbone of our respective economies. Thus, it is important to understand how Generation Z earn and spend money. The Metropolitan recently interviewed some young adults in Beijing and New York City who identify as Generation Z to glean some insight into this subject.
 
Despite financial support from their parents for tuition, rent and other daily expenses, some try to earn money through part-time jobs. Shaped by an internet-driven environment and a more inclusive world, there are also some behavioral patterns of consumption and views shared among the youths of this generation in China and the US.
 
For Generation Z youth born in the US and China after the year 2000, tuition and rent are naturally the biggest chunk of their daily expenses. "I'm very lucky that my parents have  the resources and are willing to support me like they do," said 20-year-old Conall Curran, who studies at a private school in Michigan.
 
His total tuition is about $60,000 each year, though an academic scholarship means his parents only have to pay half that amount. "It's extremely expensive as far as Michigan goes, but schools will give students some discounts based on family income and how much you deserve your scholarship," he said.
 
Supported by parents and government
 
According to data from US News, the average cost of tuition and fees for the 2018-2019 school year was $35,676 at private colleges, and $9,716 for state residents at public colleges,  which have seen a surge in enrollment since the late-1990s. Such is the steep cost of higher education in the US that increasing numbers of youths are choosing to study overseas at less expensive institutions - or simply skip college altogether.
 
In 2018, Americans are burdened by student loan debt more than ever, with 44 million borrowers owing $1.5 trillion in student loans, according to Forbes. Meanwhile, the problem is nonexistent in China. Student loans are not as common in China as in the US.
 
Hu Yuchen, who recently turned 18, is a vocational college student at Beijing International Studies University. Hu spends only 1,800 yuan ($259) per year on her tuition. "A vocational education is supported by the government," Hu explained to Metropolitan. Generally speaking, the tuition for Chinese students at institutions of higher education is about 5,000 yuan ($719) per year on average, according to figures published on sina.com. 
 
Many American youth do not have the time or energy to secure a part-time job, despite the financial incentives in doing so. A 22-year-old Generation Z student named Kevin Brew tried to combine studying with part-time work while attending college in New York City. He took his first job as a lifeguard during his senior high school year in his hometown of Rhode Island.
 
Curran noted that while it is possible for Generation Z students to get a part-time job as early as high school, he acknowledged that the pay is hardly enough for them to become independent from their parents. 
 
According to Zhang Yunyi, whose tuition is 6,000 yuan ($863) per year, many Chinese students his age prefer to concentrate on their studies instead of work. "I choose not to work because I don't want to," said Hu. "This is the right time for me to absorb as much knowledge as I can during my school years by reading and learning."
 
But Zhang will be seeking an internship next year, though his primary motivation is to gather work experience in his chosen field, rather than simply earning money. "I don't think [working] means that American youth are more independent than Chinese," Zhang told Metropolitan.
 
 
 
Today's generation Z are being shaped more by technology than social class. Photo: VCG
 
 
Surpassing millennials
 
According to a 2016 survey release by an entrepreneurship lab at Zhejiang University, out of 10,000 local college students, 21 percent had part-time jobs while attending school. But with Chinese tuition fees being much lower than those in the US, neither Hu nor Zhang's family bear too much debt for their education.
 
"I want to be a journalist for a car magazine after graduation," said Curran, who spends at least $40 per week on gasoline alone for his road trips. Hu and Zhang likewise said that a majority of their expenses after tuition and food go toward their personal hobbies. It was in his senior year of high school, in 2016, that Zhang purchased his first digital camera lens at a price of 9,000 yuan ($1,294). "It was worth it," he said. 
 
With Generation Z increasingly spending more money on their hobbies, the rising number of young adults suggest that this pattern of consumption is likely to continue rising. From a consumer spending point of view, new information from Bloomberg reveals that by 2019, Generation Z will comprise 32 percent of the global population (7.7 billion), surpassing millennials for the first time.
 

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