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英语阅读:中非之间富有历史意义的友谊

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中非之间富有历史意义的友谊早在投资热潮之前就开始了。由于这种伙伴关系,非洲国家的经济格局经历了重大转变。在非洲独立一个多世纪后,这种伙伴关系进一步深化。
 
 
中国对非洲发展的投资带来的好处,远不止是建立在开采和出口商品基础上的贸易关系。事实上,中国的成功经验为非洲提供了关键的教训。它已经告诉非洲大陆如何维持其建立在包容性基础上的增长。非洲不可避免地要向中国学习,它已经找到了让非洲人民摆脱贫困的最佳途径。
 
 
可以说,迄今为止,中非合作并不是什么值得回首和遗憾的事情。正在进行的大量基础设施投资、农业产出的增加和服务部门的扩大,重新燃起了非洲大陆每年增长6%以上的希望。随着中国作为主要贸易伙伴之一的崛起,非洲大陆大宗商品出口激增,也为不断增长的青年人口带来了更多就业机会。
 
 
不幸的是,一些媒体对中非关系的报道仍然是片面的。虽然他们有责任报道事实并掌握权力,但媒体,尤其是西方媒体,在这方面失败了。他们一次又一次地宣称,中非关系本质上是寄生的,中国利用非洲丰富的资源。他们还进一步宣称,中国正在向非洲堆积债务,制造了一个新的殖民主义形式的陷阱。更糟糕的是,对西方媒体来说,在非洲运营的中国公司甚至在向当地人传授技能方面都没有帮助。
 
 
然而,事实并非如此。中国经济增长继续为非洲发展提供独特机遇。今天,许多非洲国家正是通过中国的优惠贷款和援助为许多发展项目提供资金。
 
 
必须赞扬非洲各国政府的领导,因为它们加强了国内政策和管理。正在进行的区域投资政策协调,加上今年早些时候一个规模达3万亿美元的大陆自由贸易区的诞生,提升了欧洲大陆与中国讨价还价的地位。毫无疑问,这将确保中非关系为可持续增长和减贫做出贡献。
 
 
作为认识到使中国成为世界主要经济体之一的知识转移的一部分,中国正在将培训作为向非洲人传授技能的直接手段之一。在许多非洲国家,中国企业为当地工人提供培训,主要是通过正规项目、在职培训和指导。
 
 
例如,在马达加斯加,一家中国农业公司湖南农业(Hunan Agri)在塔那那利佛附近建立了一个农业技术示范中心,以指导当地农民如何最好地生产新品种水稻。为了加强其向当地人传授知识的计划,该公司还生产当地语言马达加斯加语的学习和培训材料。另一家中国公司天利农业(Tianli Agri)也设立了由中国技术人员运营的辅导中心,向当地人传授棉花种植和种植技术。
 
 
在肯尼亚,从中国人到当地人的知识转移更加活跃。在这里,最常见的策略是在职培训,通常在前三个月进行。培训帮助当地人获得关键技能,有助于塑造他们国家的发展。
 
 
但非洲从中国获得的不仅仅是知识转移。最近,非洲大陆见证了中国企业向非洲国家转移知识传播的关键方面的技术。这是以机械、设备、生产过程、组织过程和模型的形式出现的。例如,在赞比亚,中国CAC国际公司通过引进改良种子品种和具有成本效益的化学产品,促进了技术的改进和升级,提高了棉花生产的生产率。马达加斯加也有类似的发展,中国公司引进了水稻和棉花种植的新生物技术。
 
 
虽然现在衡量中国向非洲的知识转移在制定其发展议程方面发挥的重要作用可能还为时过早,但肯尼亚、赞比亚、加纳、尼日利亚和其他发展中经济体的经验提供了一个光明的前景。
 
 
现在的挑战是决策者要创造一个有利的环境,让非洲人从与中国的合作中得到尽可能多的好处。这可能需要定期进行评估,以衡量这种计划对非洲发展的影响。与此同时,正如西方媒体所报道的那样

The rich, historic friendship between China and Africa began long ago before the current buzz of investments. Because of the partnership, which deepened further after independence - more than a century ago - African countries' economic landscape has undergone a major turnaround.
 
The benefits of China's investments in African development run far deeper than a mere trade relationship based on extraction and export of commodities. Indeed, China's experience of success has offered crucial lessons to Africa. It has informed the continent how to sustain its growth that is founded on inclusivity. Inevitably, learning from China, Africa has been able to figure out how best it can get its people out of poverty.
 
Fairly, so far, the China-Africa cooperation cannot be said to be something to look back and regret. The ongoing vast infrastructural investment, increased agricultural output and expanded services sector offer renewed hopes to the continent of growing by more than 6 percent annually. The boom in commodities exports from the continent, spiked by the emergence of China as one of the key trade partners, has also translated to increased job opportunities for the surging youth population.
 
Sadly, some media outlets continue to be one-sided in their reporting on China-Africa ties. While it is their duty to report the facts and hold power to account, media outlets, particularly the Western ones, have failed on this front. Time after time, they have claimed that China-Africa ties are parasitic in nature, with China exploiting Africa's rich resources. They have further alleged that China is piling up Africa with debts, creating a trap that spells a new form of colonialism. Worse, to Western media, Chinese firms operating in Africa do not even help in the transfer of skills to locals.
 
Yet, this is not true. China's economic growth continues to offer a unique opportunity to boost development in Africa. It is through China's concessional loans and assistance that many African countries are today financing many of their development projects.
 
The leadership of African governments must be applauded for strengthening domestic policies and governance. The ongoing harmonization of regional investment policies, coupled with the birth of a giant $3 trillion continental free-trade bloc early this year, has upgraded the continent's bargaining position with China. Undoubtedly, this would ensure that the China-Africa relationship contributes to sustainable growth and poverty reduction.
 
As part of the realization that it is knowledge transfer that made it one of the major economies in the world, China is employing training as one of the immediate means of skills transfer to Africans. In many African countries, Chinese firms are providing training to their local workers, mostly through formal programs, on-the-job training and mentoring. 
 
In Madagascar, for instance, a China-based agricultural firm Hunan Agri has launched an agro-technology demonstration center near Antananarivo to coach local farmers how best to produce a new variety of rice. So as to firm up its knowledge transfer plans to the locals, the firm also produces learning and training material in the local language, Malagasy. Tianli Agri, another Chinese firm, has also set up tutoring centers run by Chinese technicians to teach cotton planting and farming techniques to locals. 
 
The transfer of knowledge from the Chinese to the locals has been more vibrant in Kenya. Here, the most common strategy is on-the-job training, normally carried out during the first three months. The training helps the locals to acquire the critical skills that can help shape the development of their countries.
 
But it is not knowledge transfer alone that Africa is gaining from China. Of late, the continent has been witnessing technology transfer of vital aspects of knowledge diffusion from Chinese firms to host African countries. This has been in the form of machinery, equipment, production processes, organizational processes and models.  For example, in Zambia, CAC International, a Chinese firm, has contributed to technology improvements and upgrade through the introduction of improved seed varieties and cost-efficient chemical products that have seen increased productivity in cotton production. A similar development has been witnessed in Madagascar where Chinese firms have brought in new biotechnology for rice and cotton cultivation. 
 
While it may be too early to measure the significant role knowledge transfer from China to Africa is playing in shaping its development agenda, experiences in Kenya, Zambia, Ghana, Nigeria and other growing economies offer a bright prospect.
 
The challenge now is for the policymakers to create a conducive environment that would see Africans gain as much as possible from the cooperation they have with the Chinese. This may call for regular appraisals to gauge the impact such a plan is having on Africa's development. In the meantime, as Western media dwells on neocolonialism claims, Africa would be reaping from its partnership with China.

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