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双语阅读学习(一)免费就读

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这是一种趋势。与四年前相比,如今自称进步派的民主党人要多得多。候选人接受这个标签有其战略原因。但据NPR新闻的阿斯玛·哈立德报道,一个主要原因可能是这个词很灵活。它在不同的状态下意味着不同的东西。


阿斯玛·哈立德(ASMA KHALID)报道:托尼·埃弗斯(Tony Evers)不是一所要求所有人免费就读的激进的自由派大学。他是一位说话轻声细语的官僚,曾任教师和学校管理者,现在竞选威斯康星州州长,试图阻止共和党人斯科特·沃克(Scott Walker)赢得第三个任期。埃弗斯做了很多关于改善基本公共服务的演讲。


托尼·埃弗斯:威斯康辛人民关心他们的道路是否安全。他们关心自己是否有良好的教育体系。他们关心的是获得负担得起的医疗保健。这对我来说是进步主义。


哈立德:艾弗斯有个习惯叫自己进步派。甚至在他的Twitter个人简介里也有。


埃弗斯:进步主义对我来说意味着解决人们遇到的问题。这不是共和党的问题。这不是一个民主问题。




哈立德:但是埃弗斯从来都不是威斯康辛州初选中最自由派的候选人。在他最近与伯尼•桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)举行的一次集会上,一些民主党人,比如迪伦•费尔韦瑟(Dylan Fairweather),并不确定他们是否会把桑德斯和埃弗斯放在同一个阵营。


迪伦·费尔韦瑟:我不知道我是否会称他为进步派。我想,如果他要这么称呼自己,那就继续吧。做你的事情。


哈立德:艾弗斯想要做的是利用威斯康辛州独特的进步政治。这个国家有着长期的经济民粹主义传统。当艾弗斯的竞选活动中谈到医疗补助计划的扩展和15美元的最低工资时,你会听到类似的声音。


(存档录音)


埃弗斯:我们将给威斯康辛州的每一个中产家庭10%的所得税减免,因为这些人在斯科特·沃克的领导下一直在苦苦挣扎。


(掌声)


哈立德:埃弗斯对进步政治的看法是,与大企业对抗,确保普通民众在政府中拥有发言权。再往南几百英里就是佛罗里达了,还有一个人在竞选州长,他对经济和医疗补助计划的扩张也有同样的担忧。


ANDREW GILLUM:当我们谈到医疗保健和获得医疗保健时,对我来说,没有什么是,你知道,脱离主流的人们获得救命药物的。


哈立德:39岁的安德鲁·吉伦是塔拉哈西的市长,他试图成为佛罗里达州第一位黑人州长。他的竞选风格一点也不像埃弗斯。他的支持者喜欢说,他是毫无歉意的黑人和魅力。另一方面,埃弗斯则被形容为平淡无奇,即使是他的支持者也是如此。和埃弗斯一样,吉利姆也经常谈到经济问题,以及在民主党人通常不会去的州的红色地区进行竞选的必要性。但当埃弗斯对移民或枪支等文化战争问题持谨慎和谨慎态度时,吉勒姆强调的是同样的事情。他多次谈到需要接受全国步枪协会。


GILLUM:我意识到我们党的现状,甚至是政治现状都表明,如果你想在像我这样的州获胜,你必须远离这些路线。但我认为我们的初选把这一切都搞砸了。


哈立德:吉利姆还想废除该州有争议的“坚持你的立场”法律。法律赋予佛罗里达人自卫的权利,甚至到了使用致命武力的地步。


(存档录音)


吉勒姆:在我居住的州,法律规定你可以去对抗,推熊,开始战斗,然后当有人回应时躲在“坚守阵地”后面。


KHALID: Gillum说他自己的经历影响了他的公共政策。Gillum也做的是把进步政治和种族混合起来。在最近的一场辩论中,他指责共和党对手接受了一名捐赠者的捐款。该捐赠者错误地将前总统奥巴马描述为穆斯林,并使用了种族歧视的语言。


(存档录音)


吉勒姆:我不是说德桑提斯先生是种族主义者。我只是说种族主义者相信他是种族主义者。


(笑声)


哈立德:尽管研究显示,与十年前相比,白人民主党选民越来越倾向于将他们的政治观点描述为自由主义,但黑人选民——并不多。这意味着一个进步的有色人种候选人可以建立一个基于意识形态和身份的联盟。这是民主党人在2020年竞选总统时将密切关注的策略。NPR新闻,阿斯玛·哈立德报道。

DAVID GREENE, HOST:
 
Here's a trend. Far more Democrats are describing themselves as progressive these days than they did four years ago. There are strategic reasons candidates are embracing this label. But one major reason, as NPR's Asma Khalid reports, could be that the word is flexible. It can mean different things in different states.
 
ASMA KHALID, BYLINE: Tony Evers is not a fiery liberal demanding free college for all. He's a soft-spoken bureaucrat, a former teacher and school administrator now running for governor in Wisconsin trying to prevent the Republican Scott Walker from winning a third term. Evers offers talks a lot about improving basic public services.
 
TONY EVERS: The people of Wisconsin - they care whether their roads are safe. They care whether they have a good education system. They care about having access to affordable health care. That is progressivism for me.
 
KHALID: Evers has a habit of calling himself a progressive. It's even in his Twitter bio.
 
EVERS: Progressivism means to me solving problems that people have. It's not a Republican issue. It's not a Democratic issue.
 
 
 
KHALID: But Evers was never the most liberal candidate in the Wisconsin primary. And at a recent rally he had with Bernie Sanders, some Democrats in the crowd, like Dylan Fairweather, were not exactly sure if they would put Sanders and Evers in the same bucket.
 
DYLAN FAIRWEATHER: I don't know if I would call him a progressive. I guess, like, if he's going to call himself that, then, like, go ahead. Do your thing.
 
KHALID: What Evers is trying to do is tap into a distinct Wisconsin version of progressive politics. The state has had a long tradition of economic populism. And you hear echoes of that when Evers campaigns, talking about Medicaid expansion and a $15 minimum wage.
 
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
 
EVERS: And we're going to give every middle-class family in the state of Wisconsin a 10 percent break on their income taxes 'cause those are the people that have been struggling all along under Scott Walker.
 
(APPLAUSE)
 
KHALID: Evers' vision of progressive politics is about standing up to big business and ensuring average people get a voice in government. And hundreds of miles to the south in Florida, there's another guy running for governor who shares those concerns about the economy and Medicaid expansion.
 
ANDREW GILLUM: When we talk about health care and access to health care - to me, there's nothing, you know, out of the mainstream about folks getting access to lifesaving medicine.
 
KHALID: Andrew Gillum is the 39-year-old mayor of Tallahassee trying to become Florida's first black governor. His campaign style is nothing like Evers'. His supporters like to say that he is unapologetically black and charismatic. Evers, on the other hand, is described as bland, even by his supporters. Gillum, like Evers, talks a lot about the economy and the need to campaign in red parts of the state where Democrats don't usually go. But where Evers is cautious and careful around culture war issues like immigration or guns, Gillum emphasizes those very same things. He's repeatedly spoken about the need to take on the NRA.
 
GILLUM: I realize that the status quo of our party, and maybe even the status quo of politics, says that those are, you know, lines by which you have to stay away from if you want to win in a state like mine. But I think our primary race really blew that to shreds.
 
KHALID: Gillum also wants to repeal the state's controversial "stand your ground" law. The law gives Floridians the right to act in self-defence even to the point of using deadly force.
 
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
 
GILLUM: And in my state where I live, the law is such that you can go antagonize, push the bear, start a fight and then hide behind "stand your ground" when somebody responds.
 
KHALID: Gillum says his own experiences have informed his public policies. What Gillum also does is mix progressive politics with race. Here he is at a recent debate calling out his GOP opponent for accepting money from a donor who falsely described former President Obama as a Muslim and used a racial slur.
 
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
 
GILLUM: Now, I'm not calling Mr. DeSantis a racist. I'm simply saying the racists believe he's a racist.
 
(LAUGHTER)
 
KHALID: While research shows that white Democratic voters are increasingly likely to describe their political views as liberal compared to a decade ago, black voters - not so much. What this means is that a progressive candidate of color can build a coalition based on ideology and identity. And that's a strategy Democrats who will run for president in 2020 are going to be watching closely. Asma Khalid, NPR News.
 
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