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美文分享:如何开启经济的人生

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实践经济的方法很简单。花的钱比挣的少。这是第一条规则。一部分应该永远被分开为未来。花钱的人比挣的多,是傻瓜。
 
下一个规则是支付现款,无论如何,决不负债。
 
债台高筑的人容易上当受骗,如果债台高筑,他自己也容易上当受骗。“谁来付他所欠的,就充实自己。”
 
下一步是,在他们被担保之前,不要通过不确定的利润来预测不确定的利润。利润可能永远不会来,在这种情况下,你会承担一大笔债务,你可能永远也摆脱不了。
 
另一个经济的方法是,把你所赚的钱和你所花的钱全部记在账上。一个有条理的人会事先知道他所需要的,并将提供获得它所必需的手段。因此,他的国内预算将是平衡的,他的支出保持在他的收入之内。
 
要确定精确的经济界限是困难的。培根说,如果一个人在自己的收入范围内生活得很好,他就不应该花费超过一半的钱,并节省余下的钱。这也许过于苛刻,培根本人也没有听从自己的劝告。一个人的收入应该花在租金上的比例是多少?那要视情况而定。
哪里有一个大家庭,越多的钱放在一边,储蓄越多越好。经济对中等富裕的人和相对贫穷的人都是必要的。没有经济,人就不能慷慨。他不能参加世界慈善事业。
如果他花了所有的钱,他就不会帮助任何人。他不能适当地教育他的孩子,也不妨碍他们公平地开始生活。数以千计的目击者每天作证说,即使是最温和的智者,也能以成功来实践美德。
迄今为止,各阶层的人对这些考虑的影响都很小。他们倾向于过着收入以外的生活。为了经济目的省钱完全不同于节约经济目的。储蓄可以以同样的方式完成,不浪费任何东西,节约一切。但这里的比较结束了。吝啬鬼唯一的乐趣是储蓄,谨慎的经济学家花他所能负担得起的来获得舒适和享受,并为将来的一段时间节省盈余。贪婪的人把金子当作偶像,而节俭的人把它当作有用的工具,当作促进自己幸福和依赖他的人幸福的一种手段。守财奴从不满足。他积累了一些他永远不能消费的财富,却任由别人挥霍,也许是挥霍无度的人;而经济学家的目标是确保公平分享世界的财富和舒适,而不想积累财富。

The methods of practicing economy are very simple. Spend less than you earn. That is the first rule. A portion should always be set apart for the future. The person who spends more than he earns, is a fool.
The next rule is to pay ready money, and never, on any account, to run into debt.
The person who runs into debt is apt to get cheated; and if he runs into debt to any extent, he will himself be apt to get dishonest. “Who pays what he owes, enriches himself.”
The next is, never to anticipate uncertain profits by expending them before they are secured. The profit may never come, and in that case you will have taken upon yourself a load of debt which you may never get rid of.
Another method of economy is, to keep a regular account of all that you earn, and of all that you expend. An orderly man will know beforehand what he requires, and will be provided with the necessary means for obtaining it. Thus his domestic budget will be balanced; and his expenditure kept within his income.
It is difficult to fix the precise limits of economy. Bacon says that if a man would live well within his income, he ought not to expend more than one-half, and save the rest. This is perhaps too exacting; and Bacon himself did not follow his own advice. What proportion of one’s income should be expended on rent? That depends upon circumstances.
 
 
Wherever there is a large family, the more money that is put to one side and saved, the better. Economy is necessary to the moderately rich, as well as to the comparatively poor man. Without economy, a man cannot be generous. He cannot take part in the charitable work of the world.
If he spends all that he earns, he can help nobody. He cannot properly educate his children, nor put them in the way of starting fairly in the business of life. Thousands of witnesses daily testify, that men even of the most moderate intelligence, can practice the virtue with success.
Men of all classes are, as yet, too little influenced by these considerations. They are apt to live beyond their incomes. To save money for avaricious purposes is altogether different from saving it for economical purposes. The saving may be accomplished in the same manner by wasting nothing, and saving everything. But here the comparison ends. The miser’s only pleasure is in saving, the prudent economist spends what he can afford for comfort and enjoyment, and saves a surplus for some future time. The avaricious person makes gold his idol, whereas the thrifty person regards it as a useful instrument, and as a means of promoting his own happiness and the happiness of those who are dependent upon him. The miser is never satisfied. He amasses wealth that he can never consume, but leaves it to be squandered by others, probably by spendthrifts; whereas the economist aims at securing a fair share of the world’s wealth and comfort, without any thought of amassing a fortune.

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