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英语短文令人沮丧的各种原因

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我为什么沮丧?
 
Caroline Murray
 
有许多著名的沮丧诱因:创伤、悲伤、财政困难和失业只是少数。
 
但是如果你情绪低落,这些都不适用于你,很难找出具体原因。
 
事实上,你的抑郁可能没有具体的原因。但这里有一些鲜为人知的原因需要考虑。
 
 
 
夏天的天气
 
季节性情感障碍(SAD)是最常见的与冬季抑郁症相关,它折磨着大约5%美国人。
 
但对于不到1%的人来说,这种形式的抑郁在夏天会发作。温暖的天气抑郁时,身体经历“延迟调整到新的赛季,”Alfred Lewy说,MD精神在俄勒冈健康与科学大学的教授在波特兰。
 
他说,而不是醒来和享受黎明,身体很难调整,这可能是由于大脑化学失衡和荷尔蒙褪黑激素。
 
 
 
吸烟
 
长期以来,吸烟与抑郁有关联,尽管这是一个鸡或蛋的情景:抑郁倾向的人更可能养成吸烟的习惯。
 
然而,尼古丁会影响大脑中的神经递质活性,从而产生更高水平的多巴胺和血清素(这也是抗抑郁药物的作用机制)。
 
这可能解释了药物成瘾性和戒断时的情绪波动,以及为什么抑郁与戒烟有关。避免吸烟和保持吸烟可以帮助平衡你的大脑化学物质。
 
 
 
甲状腺疾病
 
当甲状腺,一个蝴蝶形的腺体在颈部,不产生足够的甲状腺激素,它被称为甲状腺功能减退症,抑郁症是其症状之一。这种激素是多功能的,但它的主要任务之一是作为神经递质和调节血清素水平。如果你体验新的抑郁症状,特别是在寒冷的敏感性,便秘,和fatigue-a甲状腺测试不能伤害。甲状腺功能减退可以用药物治疗。
 
 
 
不好的睡眠习惯
 
毫无疑问,睡眠不足会导致易怒,但也会增加患抑郁症的风险。
 
一项研究的作者指出,2007的研究发现,当健康的参与者被剥夺睡眠时,他们在观看令人沮丧的图像后,大脑的活动比休息好的人要大得多,这与抑郁症患者的反应相似。
 
“如果你不睡觉,你没有时间去补充[大脑],大脑停止运转,和可能导致的许多因素是抑郁症,”Matthew Edlund说,MD中心主任生理医学,在Sarasota,Fla.,和作者的休息的力量。
 
 
 
脸谱网超负荷
 
花太多时间在聊天室和社交网站上?大量的研究表明,这可能与抑郁症有关,特别是在青春期和青春期前的孩子。网络成瘾者可能会与现实生活中的人际交往和缺乏友谊而斗争,他们可能对世界持不切实际的看法。一些专家甚至称之为“脸谱网抑郁”。
 
在2010项研究中,研究人员发现,人的年龄在16到51的时间花在网上大量的1.2%,而且有较高的中度到重度的抑郁。然而,研究人员指出,目前还不清楚上网过度是否会导致抑郁,或者抑郁的人更容易上网。
 
 
 
电视节目或电影的结尾
 
当一些重要的事情结束时,比如电视节目、电影或大家庭装修,它会引发一些人的抑郁。在2009,一些电影迷说自己感到沮丧甚至自杀,因为这部电影的虚构世界并不是真实的。哈利·波特电影的最后一段也有类似的反应。
 
“人们遇到危难时,他们正在看主要是对于友谊,”艾米丽说,格斯éMoyer博士,通信,俄亥俄州立大学的助理教授,在哥伦布。阿凡达,Moyer Gusé嫌疑人被“卷入叙事忘记现实生活和[他们]自己的问题。”
 
 
 
你住的地方
 
你可以无休止地争论城市或乡村生活是否更好。但是研究发现住在城市的人比农村地区的人情绪紊乱的风险高出39%。《自然》杂志上的2011项研究为这种趋势提供了一个解释:城市居民在调节压力的大脑中有更多的活动。更大程度的压力会导致精神病。
 
抑郁症的发病率也因国家和国家而异。一些州的抑郁率较高,富裕国家的收入比低收入国家高。甚至海拔也可能起作用,自杀风险随海拔上升。
 
 
 
太多的选择
 
不管是面霜、早餐麦片还是家用电器,可供选择的绝对数量都是压倒性的。那不是


Why am I depressed?

By Caroline Murray

There are many well-known depression triggers: Trauma, grief, financial troubles, and unemployment are just a few.

But if you are depressed and none of these apply to you, it can be hard to pinpoint a specific cause.

In truth, there may not be a concrete reason for your depression. But here are some little-known causes to consider.



Summer weather

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is most commonly associated with winter blues, and it afflicts about 5% of Americans.

But for less than 1% of those people, this form of depression strikes in the summer. Warm weather depression arises when the body experiences a "delay adjusting to new seasons," says Alfred Lewy, MD, professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health and Science University, in Portland.

Instead of waking and enjoying dawn, the body has a hard time adjusting, he says, which could be due to imbalances in brain chemistry and the hormone melatonin.



Smoking

Smoking has long been linked with depression, though it's a chicken-or-egg scenario: People who are depression-prone may be more likely to take up the habit.

However, nicotine is known to affect neurotransmitter activity in the brain, resulting in higher levels of dopamine and serotonin (which is also the mechanism of action for antidepressant drugs).

This may explain the addictive nature of the drug, and the mood swings that come with withdrawal, as well as why depression is associated with smoking cessation. Avoiding cigarettes—and staying smoke free—could help balance your brain chemicals.



Thyroid disease

When the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, doesn't produce enough thyroid hormone, it's known as hypothyroidism, and depression is one of its symptoms. This hormone is multifunctional, but one of its main tasks is to act as a neurotransmitter and regulate serotonin levels. If you experience new depression symptoms—particularly along with cold sensitivity, constipation, and fatigue—a thyroid test couldn't hurt. Hypothyroidism is treatable with medication.



Poor sleep habits

It's no surprise that sleep deprivation can lead to irritability, but it could also increase the risk of depression.

A 2007 study found that when healthy participants were deprived of sleep, they had greater brain activity after viewing upsetting images than their well-rested counterparts, which is similar to the reaction that depressed patients have, noted one of the study authors.

"If you don't sleep, you don't have time to replenish [brain cells], the brain stops functioning well, and one of the many factors that could lead to is depression," says Matthew Edlund, MD, director of the Center for Circadian Medicine, in Sarasota, Fla., and author of The Power of Rest.



Facebook overload

Spending too much time in chat rooms and on social-networking sites? A number of studies now suggest that this can be associated with depression, particularly in teens and preteens. Internet addicts may struggle with real-life human interaction and a lack of companionship, and they may have an unrealistic view of the world. Some experts even call it "Facebook depression."

In a 2010 study, researchers found that about 1.2% of people ages 16 to 51 spent an inordinate amount of time online, and that they had a higher rate of moderate to severe depression. However, the researchers noted that it is not clear if Internet overuse leads to depression or if depressed people are more likely to use the Internet.



End of a TV show or movie

When something important comes to an end, like a TV show, movie, or a big home renovation, it can trigger depression in some people. In 2009, some Avatar fans reported feeling depressed and even suicidal because the movie's fictional world wasn't real. There was a similar reaction to the final installments of the Harry Potter movies.

"People experience distress when they're watching primarily for companionship," said Emily Moyer-Gusé, PhD, assistant professor of communication at Ohio State University, in Columbus. With Avatar, Moyer-Gusé suspects people were "swept up in a narrative forgetting about real life and [their] own problems."



Where you live

You can endlessly debate whether city or country life is better. But research has found that people living in urban settings do have a 39% higher risk of mood disorders than those in rural regions. A 2011 study in the journal Nature offers an explanation for this trend: City dwellers have more activity in the part of the brain that regulates stress. And higher levels of stress could lead to psychotic disorders.

Depression rates also vary by country and state. Some states have higher rates of depression and affluent nations having higher rates than low-income nations. Even altitude may play a role, with suicide risk going up with altitude.



Too many choices

The sheer number of options available—whether it's face cream, breakfast cereal, or appliances—can be overwhelming. That's not a problem for shoppers who pick the first thing that meets their needs, according to some psychologists. However, some people respond to choice overload by maximizing, or exhaustively reviewing their options in the search for the very best item. Research suggests that this coping style is linked to perfectionism and depression.



Lack of fish in the diet

Low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, found in salmon and vegetable oils, may be associated with a greater risk of depression. A 2004 Finnish study found an association between eating less fish and depression in women, but not in men. These fatty acids regulate neurotransmitters like serotonin, which could explain the link. Fish oil supplements may work too; at least one study found they helped depression in people with bipolar disorder.



Poor sibling relationships

Although unhappy relationships with anyone can cause depression, a 2007 study in the American Journal of Psychiatry found that men who didn't get along with their siblings before age 20 were more likely to be depressed later in life than those who did. Although it's not clear what's so significant about sibling relationships (the same wasn't true for relationships with parents), researchers suggest that they could help children develop the ability to relate with peers and socialize. Regardless of the reason, too much squabbling is associated with a greater risk of developing depression before age 50.



Birth control pills

Like any medication, the Pill can have side effects. Oral contraceptives contain a synthetic version of progesterone, which studies suggest can lead to depression in some women. The reason is still unknown, says Hilda Hutcherson, MD, clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Columbia University, in New York. "It doesn't happen to everyone, but if women have a history of depression or are prone to depression, they have an increased chance of experiencing depression symptoms while taking birth control pills," Dr. Hutcherson says. "Some women just can't take the Pill; that's when we start looking into alternative contraception, like a diaphragm, which doesn't contain hormones."

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