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双语阅读-回想你的童年

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回想你的童年,试着找出你最早的记忆。你多大了?大多数人在三岁之前无法回忆起记忆,这种现象被称为婴儿失忆症。几十年来,关于婴儿失忆症为什么会发生的问题引起了心理学家的兴趣,尤其是在有充分证据表明婴儿和幼儿可以表现出令人印象深刻的记忆能力的情况下。许多人发现,了解自传体记忆的一般性质,即对自己生活中发生的事件的记忆,可以为这个谜提供一些重要的线索。在三到四岁之间,孩子们开始对他们过去发生的事情进行相当冗长和连贯的描述。什么因素导致了这一发展转折点?
 
 
 
 
也许这种解释可以追溯到瑞士有影响力的心理学家让·皮亚杰提出的一些观点,也就是说,两岁以下的儿童所代表的事件在性质上与大一点的儿童不同。根据这一思路,在两岁大的孩子身上绽放的语言能力使得事件的编码形式与婴儿基于行动的编码形式截然不同。事实上,一岁儿童的语言能力与一年后他们对事件的记忆有关。当研究人员让一岁的孩子在第一次看到动作序列一年后模仿它时,他们第一次看到这个事件时的语言技能和他们在后来记忆任务中的成功之间存在着相关性。然而,即使是语言能力较低的儿童也表现出记忆事件的迹象;因此,记忆可能会被这些语言技能所促进,但并不依赖于这些语言技能。
 
 
 
 
另一个建议是,在孩子们能够谈论他们生活中的过去事件之前,他们需要对自我作为一个心理实体有一个合理的理解。在生命的第一年和第二年之间,对自我的理解的发展变得明显,并在随后的几年中表现出快速的阐述。根据这一假设,认识到身体自我在时间上具有连续性,为自传体记忆的产生奠定了基础。
 
 
 
 
第三种可能性是,儿童在理解故事的一般形式,即叙述结构之前,不能讲述自己的“生活故事”。有关叙述的知识来源于社会交往,尤其是儿童从父母那里经历的故事讲述,以及父母试图与儿童谈论他们生活中的过去事件。当父母和孩子们谈论“我们今天做了什么”、“上周”或“去年”时,他们会引导孩子们形成一个谈论过去的框架。他们还向孩子们提供关于记忆的提醒,并传递信息,记忆作为文化体验的一部分被重视。有趣的是,一些研究表明,美国高加索儿童的童年记忆比韩国儿童要早。此外,其他研究表明,美国高加索地区的母子对谈论过去事件的频率是韩国母子对的三倍。因此,儿童的社会经历类型对自传体记忆的发展起到了一定的作用。


Think back to your childhood and try to identify your earliest memory. How old were you? Most people are not able to recount memories for experiences prior to the age of three years, a phenomenon called infantile amnesia. The question of why infantile amnesia occurs has intrigued psychologists for decades, especially in light of ample evidence that infants and young children can display impressive memory capabilities. Many find that understanding the general nature of autobiographical memory, that is, memory for events that have occurred in one's own life, can provide some important clues to this mystery. Between ages three and four, children begin to give fairly lengthy and cohesive descriptions of events in their past. What factors are responsible for this developmental turning point?


Perhaps the explanation goes back to some ideas raised by influential Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget—namely, that children under age two years represent events in a qualitatively different form than older children do. According to this line of thought, the verbal abilities that blossom in the two year old allow events to be coded in a form radically different from the action-based codes of the infant. Verbal abilities of one year olds are, in fact, related to their memories for events one year later. When researchers had one year olds imitate an action sequence one year after they first saw it, there was correlation between the children's verbal skills at the time they first saw the event and their success on the later memory task. However, even children with low verbal skills showed evidence of remembering the event; thus, memories may be facilitated by but are not dependent on those verbal skills.


Another suggestion is that before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity. The development of an understanding of the self becomes evident between the first and second years of life and shows rapid elaboration in subsequent years. The realization that the physical self has continuity in time, according to this hypothesis, lays the foundation for the emergence of autobiographical memory.


A third possibility is that children will not be able to tell their own "life story" until they understand something about the general form stories take, that is, the structure of narratives. Knowledge about narratives arises from social interactions, particularly the storytelling that children experience from parents and the attempts parents make to talk with children about past events in their lives. When parents talk with children about "what we did today" or "last week" or "last year," they guide the children's formation of a framework for talking about the past. They also provide children with reminders about the memory and relay the message that memories are valued as part of the cultural experience. It is interesting to note that some studies show Caucasian American children have earlier childhood memories than Korean children do. Furthermore, other studies show that Caucasian American mother-child pairs talk about past events three times more often than do Korean mother-child pairs. Thus, the types of social experiences children have do factor into the development of autobiographical memories.
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