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初中英语语法大全:动词类的各种形态

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学习资料

四、动词(Verbs)(2)

  1.动词的品种(Kinds of Verbs)

  行为动词Action Verbs:含有真实的意义,表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。

  She has some bananas。

  They often come back early。

  I listen to the radio every day。

  连系动词Link Verbs:自身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必需与表语一同构成谓语。

  His father is a teacher。

  Twins usually look the same。

  Trees turn green。

  助动词Auxiliary Verbs 自身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一同构成

  谓语动词,表示否认,疑问,时态或其他语法方式。

  He doesn't speak Englist。

  We are playing basketball。

  Do you have a brother?

  神态动词Modal Verbs

  自身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一同构成谓语动词,表示说话

  人的语气和神态,神态动词没有人称和数的变化。

  She can speak a little English。

  May I speak to Ann,please?

  We must go now。

  2.普通过去时态(The Simple Past Tense)

  普通过去时表示过去某个时间发作的动作或存在的状态,常和过去的时间状语连用,

  如:yesterday,last night,in 1990,two days ago等,也表示过去经常或重复发作的

  动作,常和often,always等表示频度的时间状语连用。例如:

  I got up at 6:30 yesterday。

  My father was at work yesterday afternoon。

  He always went to work by bus last year。

  普通过去时的构成

  be

  肯定句:I was……

  He (she,it) was……

  We(You,They)were……

  否认句 I was not(wasn't)……

  He(She,It)was not(wasn't)……

  We(You,They)were not(weren't)……

  work

  肯定句 I(You,He,She,It,We,You,They)worked。

  否认句 I(You,He,She,It,We,You,They)did not(didn't)worked。

  there be

  肯定句

  There was……

  There were……

  否认句

  There was not(wasn't)……

  There were not (weren't)……

  疑问句和简单答语

  be

  第一人称

  Was I……?Yes,you were。No,you were not。

  Were we……?Yes,we(you)were。No,we(you)were not。

  第二人称

  Were you……?Yes,I was。No,I was not。

  Were you……?Yes,we were。No,we were not。

  第三人称

  Was he (she,it)……?Yes,he(she,it)was。No,he(she,it) was not。

  Were they ……?Yes,they were。No,they were not。

  work

  第一人称

  Did I work?Yes,you did。No,you did not。

  Did we work?Yes,we(you)did。No,we(you) did not。

  第二人称

  Did you work?Yes,I did。No,I did not。

  Did you work?Yes,we did。No,we did not。

  第三人称

  Did he (she,it)work?Yes,he(she,it)did。No,he(she,it)did not。

  Did they work?Yes,they did。No,they did not。

  there be

  Was there a/any……?Yes,there was。No,there was not。

  Was there any……?Yes,there were。No,there were not。

  规则动词过去式地构成

  普通在动词原形末尾加-ed 例如:look looked,play played,

  结尾是e的动词加-d 例如:live lived,hope hoped,use used

  末尾只要一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed

  例如:stop stopped,plan planned,trip tripped

  结尾是"辅音字母+y"的动词,先变y为i再加-ed. 例如:study studied

  carry carried,worry worried.

  常见的不规则动词有:

  am/is-was are-were go-went have-had do-did get-got

  come-came say-said see-saw put-put eat-ate take-took

  3.普通未来时态(The Simple Future Tense)

  普通未来时表示未来某个时间要发作的动作或存在的状态,也表示未来未来经常

  或重复发作的动作,常与表示未来的时间状语连用.如:tomorrow,next,week,next

  year等

  例如:I will go to my hometown next week.

  We will come to see you every Sunday.

  1)普通未来时的构成 普通未来时由"助动词"will+动词原形"构成.在口语中,will

  在名词或代词后常简缩为'll,will not常简缩为won't.在疑问句中,主语为第一人称

  (I和well)时,常用助动词shall.

  第一人称肯定式I/We will go.否认式I/will not go.疑问式Shall/we go ?

  第二人称肯定式You not go.否认式You will not go.疑问句Will you go?

  第三人称肯定式He/She/It/They will go.否认式He/She/It/They will not go.

  疑问式Will he/she/it/they go?

  注:(1)在口语中,主语式第一人称(I和we)时,常用助动词shall+动词原形.例如:

  I shall write you a letter next month.

  We shall be very please to see you.

  (2)在表示"带意愿颜色的未来"时,常用will.例如:

  I will tell you all about it.

  (3)在问对方能否愿意,或表示客气的约请或命令时,常用will.例如:

  Will you go to the zoo with me?

  Will you please open the window?

  (4)在表示倡议或者征求对方意见时,可用shall.例如:

  Shall we go at the ten?

  Shall we get some food?

  2)用"be going to+动词原形"表示将要发作的的事或打算,方案,决议要作的事情.

  例如:

  What are you going to next Sunday?下星期你打算干什么?

  They're going to meet outside the school gate.他们打算在校门口见面.

  We're not going to have any classes next week.下一周我们不上课.

  五.句子的成分(Members of the sentence)

  组成句子的各个局部叫做句子的成分,即:主语.谓语.表语.宾语.宾语补足语.定语和状语.

  主语和谓语是句子的主体局部.表语、宾语、宾语补足语都是谓语里的组成局部

  主语(The Subject) 表示句子所说的是什么人或什么事物,普通由名词 代词或相当于

  名词的短语等充任.例句:Lucy is an American girl.

  We study in No.1 Middle School.

  谓语(The Predicate)阐明主语"做什么","是什么"或者是怎样样.谓语(谓语局部里

  主要是词)用动词.谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必需分歧.例如:We love China.

  Mike hope to be a doctor.His parents are farmers.She is singing.

  表语(The Predicative) 阐明主语是什么或者怎样样,由名词、形容词或相当于名词

  或形容词的词或短语等充任,和连系动词一同构成谓语。例句:Her aunt is a driver.

  宾语(The Object)表示动作或行为的对象,由名词,代词或相当于名词的词,短语等

  充任,和及物动词一同阐明主语做什么.例句:He often helps me.

  We study English at school. Did you see him yesterday?

  定语(The Attribute)用来休息名词或代词.做定语的除形容词外,还有代词,数词,名词

  介词短语或相当于形容词的词或短语等.例句:The black bike is mine.

  We have four lessons in the morning.What's your name.please?

  状语(The Adverbial)用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.普通表示行为发作的时间,地点

  目的,方式,水平等意义,通常由副词,介词短语或相当于副词的词或短语等来表示

  例句:People are all working hard.It is very nice.

  We had a meeting this afternoon.

  六.句子的品种(Kings of Sentence)

  1.四种疑问句(Four Kind of Question)

  选择疑问句(The Alternative Question)

  提出两种或两种以上的状况,请求对方选择一种,这种疑问句叫选择疑问句.它的机构

  是普通疑问句加or加普通疑问句,但常把后一局部里面和前一局部相同的成分省略.说

  是or前面局部用腔调,后面用降调.如:Is her brother a adoctor or a teacher?

  Would you like tea or coffee?Shall we go to the cinema on Saturday or on sunday?

  反意疑问句(The Tag Question)

  反意疑问句表示发问者有一定的主意,但没有把握,希望对方来证明.

  反意疑问句由两局部组成,前一局部是对事物的陈说,后一局部是简单的发问.假如前一局部

  用肯定的方式,后一局部普通用否认的方式;前一局部用否认的方式,后一局部久用肯定的方式

  两局部的人称和时态要分歧.

  反意疑问句陈说的局部用降调.后办局部可升可降.发问者对陈说局部把握较大时,后半局部用

  降调;把握不大时,用降调.The weather here is very cold,isn't it?

  You're from Australia,aren't you? Yes,I am .

  对反意疑问句的答复,不论问题的提法如何,若事实是肯定的,就要用Yes,事实能否定的,就要

  用no.这和汉语不一样,应该留意.如:

  He isn't going to the meeting,is he?它不去参与会是吗?

  Yes,he is.不,他要去的.

  No ,he isn't.对他不起.

  2.感慨句(The Exclamatory Sentence)

  感慨句多用how和what惹起.how 和what与所修饰的词放在句首,其他局部用陈诉语气.在口语

  中谓语常省略

  (1)how作状语,修饰形容词,副词和动词.如:

  How cold it is today!

  How delicious they are!

  How beautiful the flowers are!

  How I miss you!

  (2)what作定语,修饰名词(名词前可由其他定语),单数可数名词前要加不定冠词a(an).如:

  What a good idear!

  What a beautiful day!

  What a happy woman!

  感慨句用来表示激烈的感情.句末要用感慨号!,读时要用降调.在口语中常用省略句.后面的

  主语和谓语常常省略,由时分只用一个词或者是词组.如:How cold! Wonderful!

  (三)

  一、动词(Verbs)

  1.如今完成时(The Present Perfect Tense)

  (1)如今完成时的构成

  如今完成时由“助动词have(has)+过去分词”构成。现以动词work为例,

  将如今完成时的肯定式、否认式和疑问式

  以及简单答语列表如下:

  肯定式

  I/You have worked。

  He/She/It has worked。

  We/You/They have worked。

  否认式

  I/You have not worked。

  He/She/It has not worked。

  We/You/They have not worked。

  疑问式和简单答复

  Have I/you worked?Yes,you/I have。No,you/I have not。

  Has he/she/it worked?Yes,he/she/it has。No,he/she/it has not。

  Have we/you/they worked?Yes,you/we/they have。No,you/we/they have not。

  注:规则动词的过去分词的构成与动词过去式相同

  (2)如今完成时的用法

  表示过去发作或曾经完成的某一动作对如今形成的影响或结果。

  Have you had your lunch yet?Yes,I have。I've just had it。

  I have already posted the photos。

  表示过去曾经开端,持续到如今的动作或状态,能够和表示从过去某一时辰持续到如今的一段

  时间的状语连用。表示持续动作或状态的动词多是持续性动词。

  I haven't seen her these days.

  I've known LiLei for three years.

  I've been at this school for over two years.

  They have lived here since 1996.

  How long have you worked in this library?

  She has taught us since I came to this school.

  如今完成时能够和already,never,just,before,yet 等状语连用。

  Have you ever eaten fish and chips?

  I've just lost my science book.

  I've never been to that farm before.

  I haven't learned the word yet.

  have(has)been和have(has)gone的区别:

  have(has) been 表示“曾经到过某地”,have(has)gone 表示“曾经去过某地了”

  Where has he been? 他方才跑到哪去了?

  Where has he gone?他到哪去了?

  She has been to Shanghai。她到过上海。

  She has gone to Shanghai。她到上海去了。

  注:非持续性动词在否认构造中可用如今完成时,如:

  I haven't bought anything for two months。

  (3)如今完成时和普通过去时的区别

  如今完成时表示过去发作的某一动作对如今形成的影响或结果,强调的是如今的状况,所以它不能和表示

  过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday,last night,three weeks ago,in 1990等,而普通过去时只表示过去

  动作或状态,和如今不发作关系,它能够和表示过去的时间状语连用。如:

  I have seen the film。我看过这部电影。

  I saw the film last week。我上星期看了这个电影。

  He has lived here since 1992。1992年以来他不断住在这里。

  He lived here in 1992。 1992年他住在这里。

  2.过去未来时(The Futere-in-the-Past Tense)

  (1)过去未来时由“助动词would+动词圆形”构成。would常缩略为‘d。

  (2)过去未来时的用法

  过去未来时表示过去的某一时间看来将要发作的动作或存在的状态。过去未来经常用在宾语从句中。如:

  I didn't know if she would come。

  I wasn't sure whether he would do it。

  Wang Lei said that she would visit her uncle next Saturday。

  过去未来时也能够用“was(were) going to +动词原形”来表示。如:

  I didn't know if she was going to come。

  Wang Lei said that she was going to visit her uncle next Saterday。

  3.过去完成时(The Past Perfect Tense)

  (1).过去完成时的构成

  过去完成时由“助动词had(用于各种人称和数)+过去分词”构成

  (2).过去完成时的用法

  过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前曾经发作或完成了的动作,它表示动作发作的时间是“过去的过去”

  表示过去某一时间可用by,before等构成的短语,也可用when,before等引导的从句或者经过上下文表示。

  例句

  By the end of the match ,they had scored two goals and we had scored four.

  We had reached the station before ten o'clock.

  When I got there ,you had already started playing .

  We did as he had told us.

  He said he had never seen such an exciting match before .

  By the time we got there,the bus had already gone.

  4.动词不定式(The Ivnfinitive)

  (1)动词不定式的根本方式是“to+动词原形”,有时能够不带to,动词不定式(或不定式短语)没有人称和数的变化。

  在句子中不能作谓语。动词不定式仍坚持动词的特性。即能够有本人的宾语和状语。动词不定式同它的宾语或状语

  构成不定式短语。如:to read the newspaper,to speak at the meeting等

  (2)动词不定式具有名词,形容词和副词的特征,因而在句中能够作主语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语、定语,状语

  作宾语

  She wanted to borrow my CD player.

  They began to read and write。

  作状语

  She went to see her grandma last Sunday。

  He came to give us a talk yesterday。

  作宾语补足语

  Lucy asked him to turn down the radio。

  She asked me to speak louder。

  She found him to be a very good pupil。

  作定语

  Have you got anything to say?

  I had something to eat this morning。

  作主语

  To learn a foreign language is not easy。

  To play in the street is danerous.

  (3)动词不定式的否认方式

  由“not+动词不定式”构成。如:

  Tell him not to be late。

  The policeman told the boys not to play in the street。

  (4)动词不定式和疑问句连用

  动词不定式亏和疑问句what,which,how,where,when等连用,构成不定式短语。

  如:The question is when to start。

  I don't know where to go。

  He showed me how to use a computer。

  Nobody told us what to do。

  (5)不带to的状况

  有一些动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式通常不带to,这种动词有两类;一类是觉得动词,如see,

  hear,watch,feel,notice等,如:

  I saw him come。我看见他来了。

  I heard him sing。我听见他唱歌了。

  另一类是某些使役动词,如make,let,have等,如:

  Let him go。让他走吧

  They made the children work 12 hours a day。

  他们强迫孩子们一天干12小时。

  动词help后的不定式可带to,也可不带to。

  5.被动语态。(The Passive Voice)

  (1)主动语态和被动语态

  英语动词有两种语态,即主动语态(The Active Voice)和被动语态(The Passive Voice)

  Many people speak English.(主动语态)

  English is spoken by many people。(被动语态)

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