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新概念第四册45课:人和地球

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宁波爱尚英语课程介绍,新概念第四册45课:人和地球, 当您想学习英语的时候可致电0574-87884520或到爱尚英语培训学校,我们的客服人员会记录下您的个人联络信息,并随后安排专业的课程顾问与您会面。 您的辅导老师会亲自为您上入学的第一课:给您介绍具体的课程安排,教您如何预订中外教课程、遇到困难如何求助等等。



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什么是人类社会中最有影响的因素?
 
在人类早期。与其他生物的竞争一定是至关重要的。但现在我们的发展阶段已经结束了。事实上,我们在处理原始条件方面缺乏实践和经验。我相信,如果没有现代武器,我会在和熊争夺洞穴所有权方面表现得很差,而且我认为自己并不孤单。最后一个与人类竞争的生物是蚊子。但即使是蚊子也被注意力集中在排水和化学喷雾上。
 
然而,我们之间的竞争,人与人,社区与社区之间的竞争,仍然存在,并且它和以前一样激烈。
 
但是人与人的竞争不是生物学中想象的简单过程。对于由物理环境决定的固定数量的食物来说,这并不是一个简单的竞争,因为决定我们进化的环境不再是物理的。我们的环境主要是由我们所相信的东西所限制的。摩洛哥和加利福尼亚是地球上纬度非常相似的地区,它们都位于大陆的西海岸,气候相似,而且可能具有相似的自然资源。然而,他们现在的发展是完全不同的,不是因为不同的人想要强调。我们环境中最重要的因素是我们自己的思想状态。
 
 
众所周知,在白人侵入原始文化,破坏作用最大的不是武器,而是思想。思想是危险的。神圣的办公室知道这一切都很好,当异教者在过去的日子里被烧毁。的确,言论自由的概念只存在于我们现代社会中,因为当你生活在一个社区,你是受社会习俗的这种程度,它是有破坏性的想法很难。只有从外面看的人才能注入危险的思想。我毫不怀疑,在现代世界中注入思想会彻底摧毁我们。我想给你举个例子,但幸运的是我不能这么做。也许说不清楚的炸弹就足够了。制作技术上相当先进的社会效应,一个还未拥有核弹,如果告诉它制造核弹的可能性,使事情应提供足够的细节。二三十页的情报交给1925年前后的任何一个世界强国,就足以改变世界历史的进程。这是一个奇怪的想法,但我认为是正确的,二十或三十页的想法和信息会使当今的世界翻天覆地,甚至毁灭它。我常常试图想象这些纸上所写的东西,当然在我们大脑所限定的模式,或者,更准确,我们可以认为只有一个很小的方式外,就只有我们很原始。

What is the most influential factor in any human society?
In man's early days. competition with other creatures must have been critical. But this phase of our development is now finished. Indeed, we lack practice and experience nowadays in dealing with primitive conditions. I am sure that, without modern weapons, I would make a very poor show of disputing the ownership of a cave with a bear, and in this I do not think that I stand alone. The last creature to compete with man was the mosquito. But even the mosquito has been subdued by attention to drainage and by chemical sprays.
Competition between our selves, person against person, community against community, still persists, however; and it is as fierce as it ever was.
But the competition of man against man is not the simple process envisioned in biology. It is not a simple competition for a fixed amount of food determined by the physical environment, because the environment that determines our evolution is no longer essentially physical. Our environment is chiefly conditoned by the things we believe. Morocco and California are bits of the Earth in very similar latitudes, both on the west coasts of continents with similar climates, and probably with rather similar natural resources. Yet their present development is wholly different, not so much because of different people wish to emphasize. The most important factor in our environment is the state of our own minds.


It is well known that where the white man has invaded a primitive culture, the most destructive effects have come not from physical weapons but from ideas. Ideas are dangerous. The Holy Office knew this full well when it caused heretics to be burned in days gone by. Indeed, the concept of free speech only exists in our modern society because when you are inside a community, you are conditioned by the conventions of the community to such a degree that it is very difficult to conceive of anything really destructive. It is only someone looking on from outside that can inject the dangerous thoughts. I do not doubt that it would be possible to inject ideas into the modern world that would utterly destroy us. I would like to give you an example, but fortunately I cannot do so. Perhaps it will suffice to mention the unclear bomb. Of making the effect on a reasonably advanced technological society, one that still does not possess the bomb, of making it aware of the possibility, of supplying sufficient details to enable the thing to be constructed. Twenty or thirty pages of information handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925 would have been sufficient to change the course of world history. It is a strange thought, but I believe a correct one, that twenty or thirty pages of ideas and information would be capable of turning the present-day world upside down, or even destroying it. I have often tried to conceive of what those pages might contain, but of course outside the particular patterns that our brains are conditioned to, or, to be more accurate, we can think only a very little way outside, and then only if we are very original.
FRED HOYLE Of Men and Galaxies
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