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BBC中国故事 甲骨文记载祭祖及活人献祭

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BBC中国故事 甲骨文记载祭祖及活人献祭

In the 1930s a Chinese scholar called Dong Zuobin worked on the Bronze Age inscriptions scratched into the oracle bones from the Shang Dynasty.

1930年代,中国学者董作宾研究青铜器时代刻在商代甲骨上的文字。

Thousand upon thousand of them, and through the 1930s, when China was driven by civil war and Japanese invasion,

他研究了许许多多的甲骨文。而在1930年代,中国正值内战和日本入侵,

he worked transcribing these inscriptions in what, I suppose, you could call self-effacing loyalty to the Chinese past,

他将这些碑文誊抄下来,怀着一种对中国历史的忘我忠诚,

while the catastrophes of the modern world surrounded him.

尽管他周围的现实世界正遭受着前所未有的灾难。

You see there his transcription of one of the turtle shells with all the splits and the inscriptions on them.

你看,这就是他所誊抄的一份龟壳和上面的裂痕以及碑文内容。

And he worked out the order of the Shang kings and their calendar and their rituals and their journeys.

他发现了商帝的在位顺序、所用历法、仪式典礼还有出行记录。

What he discovered was that the kings came back to do special rituals at the city called Shang.

他发现,商帝们回到一个叫做商的城市进行一个特殊的仪式。

That was here.

就是这里。

Its name meant "the place where the ancestors were worshiped".

这个名字的含义是祭拜祖先的地方。

So state and ancestors were tied together.

因此,国家与宗祠紧紧相连。

And amazingly, cults and legends about the Shang still survive here at a mysterious temple at the edge of town.

最神奇的是,小城边一座神秘的庙宇里信仰和传说依然存在。

The Mound of Shang, it's a great artificial hill.

商王朝的墓堆是一座雄伟的假山。

The legends say this mound was built before the Great Flood, that here mankind first got fire, stolen from the gods.

传说这座墓堆建于大洪水之前,人类就是在这里第一次从天庭偷来了火种。

And tradition also said this had been a kind of observatory where the Shang kings watched the stars that protected their dynasty.

也有传说,这里曾经是观星台,商王在此观察保卫王朝的群星。

Because they believed that the stars were powers in heaven and if we understood them properly then we'd know best how to run our kingdom.

因为他们相信星辰代表着上天的力量。如果能读懂星辰就能找到治国之法。

So the oracle bones and the later myths are clues to early Chinese beliefs about society and the cosmos.

所以甲骨文和后来的神话都暗示着:早期中国人对天地和谐的信仰。

Divination, ritual and writing were the basis of state power.

占卜、仪式和文字是国家权力的基础。

For their sacred ceremonies they cast beautiful bronzes to hold food and wine offerings to the ancestral spirits, which were consumed at the royal feasts.

为了神圣的仪式,他们铸造精美的青铜器盛装酒食,拜祭祖宗神灵。祭品在皇家盛宴中供人们食用。

Some of them bear the symbols of the different lineages of the royal and noble families.

其中一些青铜器上篆刻着不同皇家世系的标志。

Like the ancient Egyptians and Sumerians, the Shang practised human sacrifice.

跟古埃及和苏美尔一样,商王朝也有活人献祭。

The oracle bones list the victims.

甲骨上列着受害者的名单。

They were captives from the subject peoples the Shang ruled, killed as offerings to the powers of nature.


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